Cotton textile industry why Britain's industrial revolution begin?
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The industrial revolution, also known as the 'industrial revolution', refers to the second half of the 18th century to the middle of the 19th century machine big industry instead of the workshop handicraft industry a profound technological revolution and the subsequent big social and economic reforms.
Britain is the birthplace of the industrial revolution and the center.
The industrial revolution took place in the earliest in the UK in the middle of the 18th century.
The British bourgeois revolution has been completed, for the development of capitalist economy created a favorable political conditions;
Enclosure movement, colonial plunder, as the industry technology upgrade amassed ample capital and labor resources.
At the time of British industry, cotton textile industry is particularly rich profit, the scale of production has been developing rapidly, there has been a quite developed workshops, skilled workers also become more and more, are more likely to promote the new technology.
Since mid 18th century, cotton textile machine.
The clockmaker kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733, a preliminary change the backward manual shuttle weaving method to improve work efficiency by twice, cotton yarn was in short supply, appear 'yarn shortage', to promote the reform of the spinning technology.
In 1764, more than textile workers hargreaves invented the wind-up spindle spinning machine (
With the name of his daughter named after 'Jenny machine')
Has greatly raised Labour productivity.
To solve Jenny machine spindles increased and the problem of insufficient power, the clockmaker arkwright's power-driven spinning machine invented the use in 1769.
Jenny machine spinning yarn of fine but brittle, hydraulic spinning spun yarn is solid, polished, 1779 weavers Karen Southampton comprehensive Jenny machine and hydraulic strengths of spinning machine, invented a new type of spinning machine (
Say 'mule', take the mule both horse and donkey advantages)
'Mules machine' can be also rotating SanSiBaiGe spindles, promote the innovation of textile technology.
In 1785, the village priest cartwright after visiting arkwright's mill, inspired by water frame, produced hydraulic looms, weaving efficiency by about 40 times;
The invention is completed and the linkage of the loom textile machinery matching, thus to realize the historic breakthrough of machine work related process, promote the other production industry, technological change.
The advancement of the textile industry was restricted by running out of steam.
In 1782, watt successfully trial-produced can promote the interaction of piston engine from both sides.
The epoch-making technology innovation, make the engine become a powerful and convenient for popularization of engine, solves the dynamic problem in the development of industry.
Steam engine gradually applied in chemical industry, metallurgy, mining, transportation, transportation and other departments, to the national economy and social life has brought great changes, at the same time promote the invention and creation of the industry, such as the 1807 americans darfur, invented the steam engine, ship developed in 1814, the British Stephenson steam locomotives, and planer, turning lathe, steam hammer, boring machine, etc. The invention and application of machine tools.
To the middle of the 19th century, Britain machine master has basic replace manual technology based cottage industry and workshop handicraft industry, basically completed the industrial revolution.
Subsequently, many European and American countries also successively on the path of the industrial revolution.